Penetration of shaped charges into frozen ground
Technical ReportSummary: During March and April, 1955, and February and March, 1956, shaped charges were fired into permanently frozen ground, rock, and ice at Fort Churchill, Manitoba, in order to determine the feasibility of using shaped charges to produce a hole in frozen ground that can be loaded with other explosives to form a crater adequate for use as a foxhole. Charges tested were : standard U. S. Army shaped charges M3 (40 lb) , M2A3 (15 lb) , and M2 (10 lb) ; two experimental shaped charges furnished by the Terminal Ballistics Laboratory of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland (20 lb and 5 lb) ; and a 2 and 3/4-oz jet tapper manufactured by Du Pont. The M2, M2A3, and M3 gave holes which met the requirements - 5 ft minimum depth and 2-in minimum diameter, but the M3 is undesirable for the purpose because of weight, extremely loud noise, blast effect, and shrapnel-throwing characteristics. Both experimental charges gave holes that were too small for the purpose, The jet tapper produced too small a hole, but the excellent results for its size suggest that the same method of manufacture should be tried for experimental charges, in order to reduce the weight required.
U.S. Army Snow, Ice, and Permafrost Research Establishment.Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
Frozen ground; Frozen ground mechanics; Frozen soils; Permafrost; Explosions; Explosives; Explosion effects; Blasting; Blast effects; Penetration tests; Shaped charges; Cratering
SIPRE report ; 45.
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.