Excavations in frozen ground : part I, explosion tests in Keweenaw silt
Livingston, Clifton W.
Technical ReportAbstract: Mining Research Corporation, Inc., under contract with Snow, Ice, and Permafrost Research Establishment, Corps of Engineers, U. S. Army, conducted explosion tests in frozen Keweenaw silt, to determine:(1) the most efficient type of explosive for blasts in frozen ground, (2) the fundamental relation between weight of explosive and depth of charge, (3) the proper position of the charge relative to the frozen-ground interface, (4) the feasibility of fracturing the frozen layer by placing a charge in the underlying unfrozen material, and (5) the effect of the diameter of the borehole and of the shape of the charge upon the results of blasting. Information obtained from the tests applies to the specific problem of excavating in frozen ground and to fundamental explosives research. Conclusions and recommendations based on this information are presented here concerning the feasibility of using explosives for foxholes in frozen ground; methods of placing the charge; mechanics of crater formation; the crater equation; future instrumentation; classification of explosives: and correlation of blast data. NOTE: This file is large. Allow your browser several minutes to download the file.
U.S. Army Snow, Ice, and Permafrost Research Establishment.Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
Frozen ground; Frozen soils; Permafrost; Excavation; Blasting; Blast effects; Explosives; Explosions; Explosion effects; Frozen ground mechanics; Percussion drilling; Houghton, Michigan
SIPRE report ; 30 pt.1.
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.