Explosions in ice
Livingston, Clifton W.
Technical reportSummary: This report details tests conducted on explosions in ice. Tests included 24 instrumented and 106 uninstrumented blasts using 4 types of explosives in spherical charges weighing 2.5 – 40 lb and detonated above, in contact with, and below the ice surface. Measurements were made of underice pressure, crater dimensions, flyrock travel and airblast pressures. The results for all the explosives and weights tested indicate that explosives in glacier ice deviate from cube-root scaling. Comparisons of the relations between crater volume and depth ratio, and between flyrock travel height and depth ratio indicate that: 1.)The energy used in deforming the ice without loss of cohesion is not available to the fracture process, 2.) The energy used to deform without loss of cohesion and to fracture is not available to accelerate the isolated fragments, 3) Events subsequent to the breakage process depend on the manner in which energy is partitioned to the breakage process and on all parameters affecting cratering in ice. The depth of the crater is the sum of the depth of the center of gravity of the charge and the vertical radius of the explosion cavity, which is large for a contact burst than a charge at optimum depth, larger at critical contact burst than at optimum depth, larger at critical than at optimum weight, and is affected both by charge shape and type of explosive. NOTE: This file is very large. Allow your browser several minutes to download the file.
U.S. Army Snow, Ice, and Permafrost Research Establishment.Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
Ice; Ice explosions; Explosives; Explosive effects; Blasting; Blast effects; Subsurface investigations; Under-ice explosions; Pressure waves; Greenland; Glaciers; Glacier ice
SIPRE report ; 75.
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
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