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dc.contributor.authorShoop, Sally A. (Sally Annette)
dc.contributor.authorWieder, Wendy L.
dc.contributor.authorElder, Bruce C.
dc.contributor.authorBeal, Samuel A.
dc.contributor.authorDeeb, Elias J.
dc.date.accessioned2019-08-12T14:33:07Z
dc.date.available2019-08-12T14:33:07Z
dc.date.issued2019-08
dc.identifier.govdocERDC/CRREL TR-19-17
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/11681/33724
dc.identifier.urihttp://dx.doi.org/10.21079/11681/33724
dc.descriptionTechnical Report
dc.description.abstractWinter climates present a variety of surfaces that challenge vehicle mobility. Surfaces range from soft, virgin snow, to groomed snow and ice. This study evaluated the capabilities of various testing devices to measure the mechanical properties of winter surfaces. Concurrent satellite imagery supplemented in situ physical testing. The goals were (1) to find tests that most practically evaluate these winter surfaces for vehicle mobility and (2) to determine if imagery analysis correlates with mechanical properties, thus potentially allowing remote assessment of snow physical and mechanical characteristics. The test methods were typically useful for either virgin snow or groomed snow; no method worked well on all surfaces. Correlations between test devices were generally poor, but there were some important trends identified between (1) tests that measure the near-surface snow strength, (2) tests best suited for stronger snow, (3) the Clegg Impact Hammers and California Bearing Ratio, and (4) the optical imagery and surface drop cones. This study provides a rich dataset for assessing the current state of the art and future research needs for measurement and remote assessment of snow mechanical properties for vehicle mobility prediction.en_US
dc.description.provenanceSubmitted by Jered Lambiotte (jered.h.lambiotte@usace.army.mil) on 2019-08-12T14:33:06Z No. of bitstreams: 1 ERDC-CRREL TR-19-17.pdf: 39600807 bytes, checksum: 2154d5b9903d302015ba6baf910102a1 (MD5)en
dc.description.provenanceMade available in DSpace on 2019-08-12T14:33:07Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 ERDC-CRREL TR-19-17.pdf: 39600807 bytes, checksum: 2154d5b9903d302015ba6baf910102a1 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2019-08en
dc.description.sponsorshipERDC 6.2 Boreal Aspects of Ensured Maneuver Program (U.S.)en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipUnited States. Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Army for Acquisition, Logistics, and Technology.
dc.description.tableofcontentsAbstract .......................................................................................................................................................... ii Figures and Tables ......................................................................................................................................... v Preface .............................................................................................................................................................x Acronyms and Abbreviations ..................................................................................................................... xi Unit Conversion Factors ........................................................................................................................... xiii 1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................ 1 1.1 Background ..................................................................................................................... 1 1.2 Objectives ........................................................................................................................ 1 1.3 Approach ......................................................................................................................... 1 2 Field Sites ............................................................................................................................................... 3 2.1 Montana .......................................................................................................................... 3 2.2 Michigan .......................................................................................................................... 4 2.3 Test-point discussion ...................................................................................................... 5 3 Data Collection .................................................................................................................................... 15 3.1 Mechanical measurements for groomed snow ........................................................... 16 3.1.1 Field California Bearing Ratio (CBR) ............................................................................ 16 3.1.2 Cleggs ............................................................................................................................ 18 3.1.3 Light Weight Deflectometer (LWD) ............................................................................... 19 3.1.4 Russian Snow Penetrometer ........................................................................................ 20 3.1.5 CTI .................................................................................................................................. 21 3.1.6 Micro tools ..................................................................................................................... 22 3.2 Mechanical measurement for soft snow ..................................................................... 23 3.2.1 Rammsonde .................................................................................................................. 23 3.2.2 SnowMicroPenetrometer .............................................................................................. 25 3.2.3 Yamaha drop cone ........................................................................................................ 25 3.2.4 MagnaProbe .................................................................................................................. 26 3.2.5 Plate sinkage ................................................................................................................. 27 3.3 Additional physical and optical measurements .......................................................... 28 3.3.1 Air and snow temperatures .......................................................................................... 28 3.3.2 Snow density ................................................................................................................. 28 3.3.3 Denoth meter ................................................................................................................ 30 3.3.4 Finnish snow fork .......................................................................................................... 30 3.3.5 NIR photography ........................................................................................................... 30 3.3.6 GPR ................................................................................................................................ 30 3.3.7 Nadir spectral reflectance ............................................................................................ 31 3.3.8 Satellite imagery............................................................................................................ 32 3.4 Data analysis................................................................................................................. 33 4 Results and Discussion ...................................................................................................................... 35 4.1 General site conditions ................................................................................................. 35 4.2 Snow-strength measurement techniques ................................................................... 37 4.2.1 Snow-strength profile data ........................................................................................... 43 4.2.2 Strength of groomed snow surfaces ............................................................................ 44 4.2.3 Correlation between strength measurements ............................................................. 47 4.3 Spectral measurements ............................................................................................... 50 4.3.1 WV2 and WV3 satellite imagery ................................................................................... 50 4.3.2 Satellite TSX imagery .................................................................................................... 54 4.3.3 ASD field-measured reflectance ................................................................................... 54 4.4 Comparison of strength measurements with spectra data ........................................ 59 5 Conclusions and Recommendations for Future Work ................................................................. 60 References ................................................................................................................................................... 64 Appendix A: Additional Site Imagery ...................................................................................................... 68 Appendix B: Michigan Ground-Surface Photos..................................................................................... 73 Appendix C: Snow Pit and Weather Data ............................................................................................... 88 Appendix D: Summary of Snow Measurements by Site ................................................................... 104 Appendix E: Comparison of Snow Moisture and Density Measurement Techniques (Student Intern Poster).................................................................................................................... 118 Appendix F: WV2 and WV3 Data Concurrent with Michigan Field Campaign ............................ 120 Appendix G: Surface-Condition Photos and Michigan Cloud-Cover Photos for Field Spectrometer (ASD) Data Collection ........................................................................................... 124 Report Documentation Page
dc.format.extent148 pages / 37.76 Mb
dc.format.mediumPDF/A
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.publisherCold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (U.S.)en_US
dc.publisherEngineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
dc.relation.ispartofseriesTechnical Report (Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)) ; no. ERDC/CRREL TR-19-17
dc.rightsApproved for Public Release; Distribution is Unlimited
dc.sourceThis Digital Resource was created in Microsoft Word and Adobe Acrobat
dc.subjectBearing capacityen_US
dc.subjectMechanical propertiesen_US
dc.subjectRemote sensingen_US
dc.subjectSnowen_US
dc.subjectSnow mechanicsen_US
dc.subjectSnow--Testingen_US
dc.subjectStrengthen_US
dc.subjectTrafficabilityen_US
dc.subjectVehicle mobilityen_US
dc.titleAssessment of field methods for measuring mechanical properties of snowen_US
dc.typeReporten_US


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