Air temperature and precipitation on the Greenland Ice Cap
Research ReportSummary: Charts of mean annual air temperature and precipitation over the ice cap are constructed on the basis of snow-profile studies at 8 locations, data collected for several years after 1953 at two U.S. Air Force weather stations, and records from expeditions since 1930. The warming trend in the Arctic appears to have occurred to a lesser degree on the ice cap, possibly because of the effect of the snow cover. The lowest mean annual temperature in South Greenland is estimated to occur within the area bounded by the 2500 m contour and the -18°C isotherm; mean annual temperature at 2700 is estimated as -20.9°C. In North Greenland, the mean annual temperature at 1700 m is estimated at -22°C. The presence of ice glands in the snow and daily max summer temperatures, estimated from records of coastal stations, indicate a potentially high incidence of melting at about 1300 m elevation and some melting at 1700 m in North Greenland, and melting up to 2700 m in the South. Annual accumulation is 2-3 times as great at 2500 m on the west side of the ice cap as at the crest. South of 66°N, precipitation may be about twice as great on the east side of the crest as in the west.
U.S. Army Snow, Ice, and Permafrost Research Establishment.Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
Air temperature; Atmospheric temperature; Temperature; Snow; Snowfall; Snow precipitation; Measurement; Maps; Mapping; Charts; Meteorology; Climatology; Climate; Greenland; Snow cover; Ice sheet; Ice cap; Glaciers; Glaciology; EPOLAR
Research report (U.S. Army Snow
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.