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|Title:||Forecasting water temperature decline and freeze-up in rivers|
|Authors:||New York Sea Grant Institute.|
Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation
Clarkson University. Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering.
Shen, Hung Tao.
Foltyn, E. P. (Edward P.)
Daly, Steven F.
St. Lawrence River
|Publisher:||Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (U.S.)|
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
|Series/Report no.:||CRREL report ; 84-19.|
Abstract: In this study a method for making long-range forecasts of freeze-up dates in rivers is developed. The method requires the initial water temperature at an upstream station, the long-range air temperature forecast, the predicted mean flow velocity in the river reach, and water temperature response parameters. The water temperature response parameters can be either estimated from the surface heat exchange coefficient and the average flow depth or determined empirically from recorded air and water temperature data. The method is applied to the St. Lawrence River between Kingston, Ontario, and Massena, New York, and is shown to be capable of accurately forecasting freeze-up.
|Appears in Collections:||CRREL Report|