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|Title:||Wastewater treatment in cold regions by overland flow|
|Authors:||Martel, Courtland James.|
Jenkins, Thomas F.
Palazzo, A. J. (Antonio J.)
|Publisher:||Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (U.S.)|
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
|Series/Report no.:||CRREL report ; 80-7.|
Abstract: Primary effluent, secondary effluent (package extended aeration plant effluent with BOD's often greater than 30 mg/liter) and tapwater were applied to separate sections of a pilot-scale overland flow site in a cold regions environment. The average application rate for each section was 5.0 cm (2.0 in.) per week. Performance was evaluated for one year, May 1977 to June 1978. Results of this study demonstrated that overland flow can renovate both primary and secondary effluent during spring, summer and fall seasons. However, during winter, runoff water quality from the primary section exceeded the 30-mg/liter BOD standard for 82 days. This was not the case in the secondary section, where the runoff water quality met secondary effluent standards even during winter. Runoff from the tapwater section contained almost no pollutants during its entire operation. Ammonia was the easiest form of nitrogen to remove and nitrate was the most difficult. Rainstorms did not cause a "flushing" effect. However, ammonia and nitrate concentrations in the runoff increased during snowmelt. The forage yield from the primary and secondary sections was almost twice that of a typical New Hampshire hayfield. Wastewater application during winter caused only minor cases of plant injury. Based on these results, a minimum of 30 days of storage is recommended if overland flow is used as a polishing process. If overland flow is used to treat primary effluent, the number of storage days predicted by EPA-1 computer program appears to be adequate.
|Appears in Collections:||CRREL Report|