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|Title:||Remediation of wastewater by land treatment : consideration of soil temperatures in winter|
Land treatment of wastewater
|Publisher:||Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (U.S.)|
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
|Series/Report no.:||CRREL report ; 98-8.|
Abstract: The impact of the winter environment on land treatment of wastewater has been investigated in terms of predicted winter-long soil temperature histories and depths of frost penetration that were obtained from numerical modeling of heat transfer and phase change in sandy soil. Severity of the winter, soil porosity, and soil moisture content are varied to determine the depth-dependent changes in soil temperature that result. The impact of wintertime soil temperatures on nitrification and denitrification is presented in terms of thickness and persistence of a soil layer cold enough to severely inhibit microbial activity. The model WASTEN is used to predict concentrations of ammonium and nitrate in soil at the end of a remediation cycle. Rates of nitrification and denitrification are varied to be consistent with decreasing microbial activity as soil cools. Depending on soil temperature and thickness of the cold soil layer, peak concentrations of ammonium and nitrate remaining in the soil can be as much as 40–100% greater than under warm soil conditions.
|Appears in Collections:||CRREL Report|