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|Title:||Ice forces on rigid, vertical, cylindrical structures|
|Authors:||Thayer School of Engineering.|
Sodhi, D. S.
Morris, Carl E.
Cold regions construction
Cylindrical test structures
|Publisher:||Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (U.S.)|
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
|Series/Report no.:||CRREL report ; 84-33.|
Abstract: A small-scale experimental study was conducted to characterize the magnitude and nature of ice forces during continuous crushing of ice against a rigid, vertical, cylindrical structure. The diameter of the structure was varied from 50 to 500 mm, the relative velocity from 10 to 210 mm/s, and the ice thickness from 50 to 80 mm. The ice tended to fail repetitively, with the frequency of failure termed the characteristic frequency. The characteristic frequency varied linearly with velocity and to a small extent with structure diameter. The size of the damage zone was 10 to 50% of the ice thickness, with an average value of 30%. The maximum and mean normalized ice forces were strongly dependent on the aspect ratio (structure diameter/ice thickness). The forces increased significantly with decreasing aspect ratio, but were constant for large aspect ratios. The maximum normalized forces appeared to be independent of strain rate. The effect of velocity on the normalized ice forces depended on structure diameter. The mean effective pressure or specific energy of ice crushing depended on both aspect ratio and ice-structure relative velocity. The energy required to crush the ice for one failure cycle was obtained from the ice force records for each test, and was compared to the energy calculated from an idealized sawtooth shape for the force record, the maximum force, velocity and characteristic frequency data. The estimated energies were proportional to, but higher than, the measured energy data. The ratio of maximum to mean ice force decreased with increasing aspect ratio and velocity, but leveled off to a constant value for high aspect ratios and velocities. The trend in the standard deviations of the mean ice forces was similar.
|Rights:||Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.|
|Appears in Collections:||CRREL Report|