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Title: Suppression of river ice by thermal effluents
Authors: Ashton, George D.
Keywords: Cold regions
Thermal diffusion
Heat transfer
Heat transmission
Thermal pollution
River ice
Ice openings
Publisher: Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (U.S.)
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
Series/Report no.: CRREL report ; 79-30.
Description: CRREL Report
Abstract: The ice suppression resulting from discharge of warm water into rivers during winter is analyzed with emphasis on two different cases. In Part I the case of a thermal effluent fully mixed across the flow section is analyzed to include the effects of unsteadiness in the effluent temperature and the meteorological variations. The location of the ice edge is determined either by a 0°C water temperature criterion or an equilibrium ice melting analysis. The choice of the applicable criterion emerges naturally from the analysis even though the location of the ice edge may be considerably different when a steady-state analysis is done. In Part II the case of a side discharge of heated effluent is analyzed, also in an unsteady manner, and the effects of transverse dispersion are included in the analysis. Comparisons are made in both Parts I and II to limited field data that are available.
Rights: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
Appears in Collections:CRREL Report

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