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Title: Axial double-ball test versus the uniaxial unconfined compression test for measuring the compressive strength of freshwater and sea ice
Authors: Kovacs, Austin.
Keywords: Compressive strength
Freshwater ice
Sea ice
Ice strength
Publisher: Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (U.S.)
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
Series/Report no.: CRREL report ; 93-25.
Description: CRREL Report
Abstract: Axial double ball load tests were made on freshwater ice and first-year and multiyear sea ice. From this simple test method the apparent unconfined compressive strength of the ice was determined. These strength results were compared with those obtained from the complex and costly uniaxial unconfined compression test made on similar ice at a strain rate of 10(-3)s(-1). The scatter in the test data and the average ice strength obtained from both test methods were similar. The findings indicate that the expedient axial double ball load test is well suited for determining the unconfined compressive strength of ice, especially in the field where the demanding sample preparation requirements needed for unconfined compression test samples cannot be met. Note: Numerals in brackets ( ) are exponents.
Appears in Collections:CRREL Report

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