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Title: Gas gun experiments to determine shock wave behavior in snow : methods and data
Authors: Ktech Corp.
Los Alamos National Laboratory.
Johnson, Jerome B.
Brown, Joseph A.
Gaffney, Edward S.
Solie, Daniel J.
Sturm, Matthew.
Blaisdell, George L.
Keywords: Attenuation
Porous ice
Shock wave propagation in snow
Experimental methods
Shock waves
Snow compaction
Publisher: Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (U.S.)
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
Series/Report no.: CRREL report ; 93-11.
Description: CRREL Report
Abstract: A laboratory study of the behavior of snow under shock wave loading and unloading conditions was conducted using a 200-mm-diameter gas gun to generate loading waves in snow samples with initial densities of 100 to 520 kg m(-3) at temperatures of-2 to -23°C. Stress levels were 2 to 40 MPa. The response of snow to shock wave loading was measured as a function of distance from the impact plane using embedded stress gauges. Large impedance differences between snow and the stress gauges produced complex stress histories. A finite element model, along with a simple analytical model of the experiment, was used to interpret the stress histories. Snow deformation was not affected by initial temperature, but was found to be rate dependent. The initial density of the snow determined its pressure-deformation path. The pressure needed to compact snow to a specific final density increases with decreasing initial density. The release moduli increased nonlinearly from 50 MPa at a snow pressure of about 15 MPa to 2700 MPa at a snow pressure of about 40 MPa.
Rights: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
Appears in Collections:CRREL Report

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