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|Title:||Towing ships through ice-clogged channels by warping and kedging|
|Authors:||United States. Coast Guard.|
|Publisher:||Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (U.S.)|
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
|Series/Report no.:||CRREL report ; 79-21.|
Abstract: The report studies the question of whether Great Lakes freighters could move effectively through ice-clogged channels with the aid of tows provided by warping or kedging systems. Ten operational concepts are outlined, and their advantages and disadvantages are noted. The crushing resistance of floating brash ice is then analyzed. The neutral, active and passive states of stress for laterally confined brash ice are considered, and the resistance to horizontal thrusting by a smooth vertical wall is calculated for cohesionless brash ice, and for ice in which there is finite cohesion between the ice fragments. The thickening of the ice cover in the vicinity of a "pusher," and the formation of pressure ridges, are analyzed in order to estimate the amount of pile-up that can occur against a ship hull. The analysis then moves on to consideration of ship resistance by brash ice, taking into account crushing resistance at the bow, tangential friction at the how, and hull friction aft of the bow section. Comparisons are made between thrust from the ship's screws and the calculated ice resistance. The next section of the report estimates the force requirements for a warping or kedging system in terms of thrust augmentation for existing vessels. Tow cable requirements are given, and estimates are made for cable anchors and for anchorage of underwater structures. The force and power requirements for winches and windlasses are given, the practical problems involved in the pickup or transfer of cables are mentioned, and the report concludes with a brief appraisal. The conclusion is that a simple warping tug system is appropriate for a full scale experiment, a chain ferry with auxiliary barge seems attractive for an operational system, and a chain ferry plow may be an efficient way to clear ice from channels.
|Appears in Collections:||CRREL Report|