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|Title:||Distribution and fate of energetics on DoD test and training ranges : interim report 5|
|Authors:||Defence Research Establishment Valcartier.|
AMEC Earth and Environmental.
Science and Technology Corporation (Hampton, Va.)
Institut national de la recherche scientifique (Québec)
Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal Technology Center (U.S.)
United States. Army. Corps of Engineers. Huntsville Division.
Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (U.S.)
Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (U.S.)
Pennington, Judith C.
Jenkins, Thomas F.
Thiboutot, Sonia, 1962-
Ampleman, Guy, 1954-
Clausen, Jay L.
Hewitt, Alan D. (Alan Dole)
Walsh, Michael R.
Walsh, Marianne E.
Ranney, Thomas A.
Zufelt, Jon E.
Walker, Deborah D.
Ramsey, Charles A.
Hayes, Charolett A.
Yost, Sally L.
Bjella, Kevin L.
Berry, Thomas E.
Lambert, Dennis J.
Perron, Nancy M.
Fate and transport of explosives
|Publisher:||Environmental Laboratory (U.S.)|
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
|Series/Report no.:||ERDC TR ; 05-2 rept. 5.|
Abstract: The potential for generation of environmental contamination in the form of residual munitions constituents during live-fire training activities on military ranges is a significant concern. The objectives of this project were to determine the nature and distribution of the potential contamination and to define transport properties of the constituents. Surface soils associated with impact craters, targets areas, and firing points on U.S. and Canadian ranges were investigated. Residues from high-order, low-order, unconfined charge, and blow-inplace detonations were characterized. Analyses of these residues defined concentrations and spatial distributions of munitions constituents under various firing activities for specific munitions. Special emphasis was placed on developing representative sampling strategies. Residues from low-order detonations were assayed to develop a source term for use in fate and transport models and risk assessment models. Pertinent data from the Massachusetts Military Reservation was reviewed and compared to the database for other ranges. Results demonstrate that a systematic composite sampling protocol developed for artillery ranges improved reproducibility over random composite or discrete sampling protocols. Results of low-order detonation studies confirmed an inverse relationship between energy of detonation and residue generated. While directionality was unpredictable, the residue was dominated by larger particles, which resulted in conservation of the pre-detonation composition of the munition. Several heavy metals were of significant concern at antitank target areas, hand- and rifle-grenade ranges, and small arms ranges. Explosives detected were specific to range activity. Results of sympathetic detonation tests demonstrated that cracking was initiated by flying shrapnel rather than by the shock wave of the first detonation. High-order detonations generate by blow-in-place detonations resulted in low-milligram quantities of explosives residue. The results of this project define the relationship between various training activities and residues of energetic materials, which provides a basis for sound management strategies supporting training range sustainment without conflicting with objectives of environmental stewardship.
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