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|Distribution and fate of energetics on DoD test and training ranges : interim report 1
|Science and Technology Corporation (Hampton, Va.)
University of Florida. Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences.
Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (U.S.)
Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (U.S.)
Pennington, Judith C.
Jenkins, Thomas F.
Brannon, James M.
Lynch, Jason C.
Ranney, Thomas A.
Berry, Thomas E.
Hayes, Charolett A.
Miyares, Paul H.
Walsh, Marianne E.
Hewitt, Alan D. (Alan Dole)
Perron, Nancy M.
Delfino, Joseph J.
|Environmental Laboratory (U.S.)
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
|ERDC TR ; 01-13 rept.1.
Abstract: The current state of knowledge concerning the nature and extent of residual explosives contamination on military testing and firing ranges is inadequate to ensure management of these facilities as sustainable resources. The objective of this project is to develop techniques for assessing the potential for environmental impacts from energetic materials on testing and training ranges; methods for defining the physical and chemical properties, concentration, and distribution of energetics and residuals of energetics in soils; and the potential for transport of these materials to groundwater. The approach includes characterization of postblast residues from various heavy artillery munitions and from hand grenades by sampling surface soils in craters from both high- and low-order detonations. Residues from specific munitions will also be determined by sampling soot deposited on snow by the blast. Where possible, groundwater and surface water associated with the ranges will also be sampled. In addition to range characterization, the study will also generate soil transport parameters for explosives and explosives breakdown products for which such data are lacking. Transport parameters of interest include dissolution kinetics, soil/water partitioning coefficients, and transformation/degradation rates. During the first year of the project, surface soils were collected from a heavy artillery impact range and at gun position firing points at Fort Lewis, WA, and at hand grenade ranges at Fort Lewis, Camp Bonneville, WA, and Fort Richardson, AK. Groundwater from monitoring wells and surface seepages around the perimeter of the heavy artillery impact range at Fort Lewis were also sampled for residual explosives. Historical firing records for Fort Lewis were combined with soil concentration data to estimate the mass of explosives potentially generated over time at the heavy artillery impact range. Results indicate very low residual concentrations of explosives in high-order detonation craters from heavy artillery. The hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) concentrations were always less than 100 ppb in these surface soils. However, concentrations in soils associated with low-order detonations were extremely high, ranging up to 1.5 percent RDX. These results suggest that range management for removal of low-order detonations may be advisable to reduce the source of potential contamination. At the firing points 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4DNT), the residue of a single-based propellant, was detected. Explosives concentrations on hand grenade ranges were relatively high. At Fort Lewis, RDX concentrations ranged up to 51 ppm and at Fort Richardson up to 0.5 ppm. These preliminary results suggest that management of residual contamination on hand grenade ranges may be necessary to protect the environment. An examination of existing data indicated a lack of process information for nitrobenzene, tetryl, nitroglycerin, and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN). Process descriptors for 2,4DNT, 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,6DNT), 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (1,3,5TNB), 1,3-dinitrobenzene (1,3DNB), 3,5-dinitroaniline (3,5DNA), and picric acid were incomplete. Transformation/degradation rates were determined for 2,4DNT, 2,6DNT, 1,3,5TNB, and 1,3DNB. Dissolution rates were determined for neat 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), RDX, and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) at 10ºC and 150 rpm. Decreasing order of dissolution was TNT > HMX > RDX. However, these results are not necessarily predictive of groundwater concentrations, since these explosives will be affected by transport parameters and compound-specific retardation effects, as well as dissolution kinetics. Results to date suggest that management of ranges to control released residuals of high explosives may be necessary to ensure environmental protection of local receptors including groundwater. The research will contribute techniques for range characterization and for development of a source term for explosives residuals resulting from various range activities. These data will be useful for ensuring environmental compliance and the continued use of test and training ranges as sustainable resources.
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