Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://hdl.handle.net/11681/8534
Title: Freeze concentration of pinkwater
Authors: Construction Engineering Research Laboratories (U.S.)
Martel, Courtland James.
Taylor, Susan.
Maloney, Stephen W.
Keywords: Freeze concentration
Pinkwater
Munitions waste
Hazardous wastes
Issue Date: Jan-2002
Publisher: Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (U.S.)
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
Series/Report no.: ERDC TR ; 02-1.
Description: Technical Report
Abstract: The freeze concentration process was evaluated as a method of concentrating munitions wastes. A bench-scale study was conducted at the U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) using pinkwater obtained from McAlester Army Ammunition Plant (AAP) in McAlester, Oklahoma. A special apparatus was constructed that allowed a sample to be frozen at a constant freezing rate. Six runs were conducted at different freezing rates. The results of this study show that the freeze concentration process is capable of meeting a 1.0 mg/L TNT discharge permit limit in the meltwater. However, the rate of freezing must be very slow to meet this criterion. An alternative would be to conduct multi-stage freezing at a higher freezing rate. Calculations show that the TNT limit could be achieved in six freezing cycles at 10 mm/hr.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11681/8534
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