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|Title:||Distribution and fate of energetics on DoD test and training ranges : interim report 2|
|Authors:||Defence Research Establishment Valcartier.|
University of Florida. Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences.
AMEC Earth and Environmental.
Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (U.S.)
Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (U.S.)
Pennington, Judith C.
Jenkins, Thomas F.
Ampleman, Guy, 1954-
Thiboutot, Sonia, 1962-
Brannon, James M.
Lynch, Jason C.
Ranney, Thomas A.
Stark, Jeffrey A.
Walsh, Marianne E.
Hayes, Charolett A.
Mirecki, June E.
Hewitt, Alan D. (Alan Dole)
Perron, Nancy M.
Lambert, Dennis J.
Clausen, Jay L.
Delfino, Joseph J.
|Publisher:||Environmental Laboratory (U.S.)|
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
|Series/Report no.:||ERDC TR ; 02-8 rept.2.|
Abstract: Testing and training ranges are essential to maintaining the readiness of the Armed Forces of the United States and Canada. Recently, concerns have arisen over potential environmental contamination from residues of energetic materials at impact ranges. The current state of knowledge concerning the nature, extent, and fate of contamination is inadequate to ensure sound management of ranges as sustainable resources. This project was designed to develop techniques for assessing the potential for environmental contamination from energetic materials on testing and training ranges. Techniques will be developed to define the physical and chemical properties, concentration, and distribution of energetics and residues of energetics in soils, and the potential for transport of these materials to groundwater. The approach included characterization of two U.S. installations, Yakima Training Center, Washington, and Camp Guernsey, Wyoming, and one Canadian installation, Canadian Force Base Shilo. Postblast residues from various heavy artillery munitions were characterized by sampling surface soils associated with firing positions and with craters from both high- and low-order detonations. Where possible, ground- and surface water associated with the ranges was also sampled. Vegetation was characterized on the Canadian range. The study also included determination of transport parameters for RDX transformation products, MNX, DNX, and TNX, and for nitroglycerin. Dissolution rates and solubilities of TNT, RDX, and HMX were determined on the compound and on three explosives formulations, LX-14, composition B, and octol. Results of range characterization studies indicate that various types of military testing and training ranges differ in the contaminants present. Consistently high concentrations (percent levels) of explosives residues were found near ruptured ordnance. Artillery ranges are a potentially very low nonpoint source of explosives residues with higher point sources randomly scattered across the site. A multi-increment composite sampling strategy is essential to adequately characterize the distribution of contaminants on artillery ranges. Contamination associated with demolition detonation of dud rounds using C4 is a potential concern. The use of C4 can result in incomplete detonations that scatter RDX across the soil. Since RDX is an undesirable groundwater contaminant, consideration should be given to improving the efficiency of blow-in-place disposal of dud rounds. Dissolution rates of TNT, HMX, and RDX increased with surface area, temperature, and mixing rates. Nitroglycerine degraded rapidly in all soils tested; therefore, it is not expected to persist in surface soils. The RDX transformation products, MNX, DNX, and TNX, were generally stable in all soils tested. These compounds exhibit transport potential consistent with RDX. Transport parameters used to model potential groundwater contamination and to evaluate environmental or human health risk should reflect formulations of the explosives present and the dissolution rates as well as solubilities.
|Rights:||Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.|
|Appears in Collections:||Technical Report|