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|Title:||Fate and transport of tungsten at Camp Edwards small arms ranges|
|Authors:||Northern Arizona University.|
Environmental Laboratory (U.S.)
U.S. Army Environmental Center.
Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (U.S.)
Clausen, Jay L.
Larson, Steven L.
Bednar, Anthony J.
Griggs, Chris S.
Lambert, Dennis J.
Hewitt, Alan D. (Alan Dole)
Ramsey, Charles A.
Bigl, Susan R.
Bailey, Ronald N.
Perron, Nancy M.
|Keywords:||Fate and transport|
Small arms ranges
|Publisher:||Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (U.S.)|
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
|Series/Report no.:||ERDC TR ; 07-5.|
Abstract: Camp Edwards, Massachusetts, is the first of three military installations studied to assess the distribution of tungsten at small arms ranges. The study focused on three ranges at Camp Edwards. Tungsten was present in surface soils up to 2,080 mg/kg. Highest observed concentrations occurred in bullet pockets and soil eroded from the berm face. Concentrations decreased in surface soils away from the berm in the following order: berm face, trough, target, range floor, and firing point. Tungsten concentration in surface soils at the firing point is similar to background levels, i.e., 1.5 mg/kg. Tungsten levels in subsurface soils decreased with depth with an order of magnitude or more decrease in concentration within the top 25 cm. However, samples collected at 150 cm still had tungsten levels above background. Tension lysimeters, installed into the primary berm face and the trough area, had dissolved tungsten up to 400 mg/L. The 24 lysimeters did not exhibit consistent tungsten concentration trends and no trend was evident with depth, but concentration levels on the range were significantly elevated compared to background. Mean tungsten concentration for lysimeters installed in background locations was 0.09 mg/L and ranged between 0.011 to 0.169 mg/L. One of three monitoring wells sampled had tungsten. Concentrations varied from 0.0044 to 0.56 mg/L in a well screened at the water table, approximately 37 m below ground surface, and located 10 m downgradient of a primary berm face. A monitoring well located between ranges and several hundred meters downgradient had no reportable tungsten, nor did two background wells.
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