Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://hdl.handle.net/11681/8509
Title: Amended ballistic sand studies to provide low maintenance lead containment at active small arms firing range systems
Authors: U.S. Army Aberdeen Test Center.
AMEC Earth and Environmental.
EnviroComp, Inc.
UFA Ventures, Inc.
Geotechnical and Structures Laboratory (U.S.)
Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (U.S.)
Larson, Steven L.
Malone, P. G.
Weiss, Charles A.
Martin, W. Andy.
Trest, Casey.
Fabian, Gene L.
Warminsky, Michael F.
Mackie, David.
Tasca, Jeffrey J.
Wildey, Jack.
Wright, Judith.
Keywords: Apatite II
Ballistic sand
Best management practices (BMPs)
Firing ranges
Training ranges
Military installations
Buffer Block
Copper
Heavy metals
Leachate
Lead
Live-fire training
Lysimeter
Passive reactive berm
pH
Runoff water
Small arms firing range (SAFR)
Soil amendment
Soil pollution
Stabilization
Sulfitech
Publisher: Environmental Laboratory (U.S.)
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
Series/Report no.: ERDC TR ; 07-14.
Description: Technical Report
Abstract: Live-fire training results in the deposition of heavy metals, such as lead and copper, into berm soils. The metals range in size from whole projectiles to microscopic dust. Surface water runoff and leachate have the potential to transport metals off-site. The Passive Reactive Berm (PRBerm) technology incorporates berm amendments with ballistic sand to immobilize soluble metals (e.g., lead) during the inevitable bullet corrosion process. Treatability studies determined that a sand to amendment ratio of 5 percent (w/w) was sufficient to contain greater than 90 percent of soluble lead within the berm material. Lysimeter studies used regulated artificial rain events to evaluate the metals concentrations, total suspended solids, dissolved organic carbon, and runoff and leachate pH over time for the amended and sand-only (control) berms. The Buffer Block #5 and SulfiTech A/T maintained average leachate lead and copper concentrations below the selected study limit of 0.150 mg/L and 0.500 mg/L, respectively, maintained a pH between 6 and 9, and maintained a dissolved organic carbon level at less than 50 mg/L for the leachate and runoff waters. Lysimeter studies indicate that amendment biological activity and pH affects the use of certain amendments within the PRBerm. The benefits of the PRBerm when compared to the traditional earthen berm, or a fully-contained bullet trap, include reduced metals migration, and reduced construction and operation costs.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11681/8509
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