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|Title:||Screening level ecological risk assessments of some military munitions and obscurant-related compounds for selected threatened and endangered species|
|Authors:||Menzie-Cura and Associates, Inc.|
Environmental Laboratory (U.S.)
Stackleberg, Katherine von.
Smith, Thomas S.
Steevens, Jeffery A.
|Keywords:||Smokes and obscurants|
Threatened and endangered species
Military unique compounds
|Publisher:||Construction Engineering Research Laboratory (U.S.)|
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
|Series/Report no.:||ERDC TR ; 06-11.|
Abstract: Preparation for anticipated, unknown, and invariably adverse battlefield conditions requires military training activities involving military smokes and obscurants (S&Os) and related chemical compounds, and can result in the release of other chemical agents and military unique compounds (MUCs) associated with munitions. This study evaluates the potential long-term impacts on selected threatened and endangered species resulting from dispersion and deposition of vapors and particles found in the fog oils, hexachloroethane smoke, colored smokes, white phosphorus, and obscurants such as brass flakes and graphite flakes used during training. Residue from these constituents can deposit directly on plants and prey species favored by higher vertebrates and other species or can be taken up by plants and prey species from the soil. From the literature and installation use reports, the authors develop estimates of toxicity and exposure to calculate installation-specific screening-level risk for selected threatened and endangered species.
|Rights:||Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.|
|Appears in Collections:||Technical Report|