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Title: Monitoring stone degradation on coastal structures in the Great Lakes: summary report
Authors: United States. Army. Corps of Engineers. Buffalo District
United States. Army. Corps of Engineers. Chicago District
Northwestern University (Evanston, Ill.). Department of Geology
Marcus, David W.
Kissane, Joseph A.
Lienhart, David A.
Henn, Kenneth E.
Agar, S. M. (Susan M.)
Keywords: Armor stone deterioration
Dolomitic limestone
Stone quarries
Issue Date: Jun-2005
Publisher: Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory (U.S.)
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
Series/Report no.: ERDC/CHL TR ; 05-1.
Description: Technical report
Stone deterioration on breakwaters and jetties arises from a combination of interactions pertaining to the quality of stone available, operational and handling practices at the quarry, and environmental weathering conditions after placement on the project structure. Four different and distinct investigations were essential to fully comprehend the mechanisms that give rise to chronic premature deterioration of armor stone on breakwaters and jetties around the Great Lakes, including: a. Quarry field geological observations. Seven different quarries that have historically provided material for Great Lakes break- water and jetty construction and rehabilitation projects were investigated. The stone produced by these seven quarries included (a) Salem formation limestone from Reed Quarry, Bloomington, IN, (b) Niagaran series dolomite from Valders Quarry, Valders, WI, (c) Waterloo formation quartzite from Dempsey Quarry, Waterloo, WI, (d) Columbus formation limestone from Sandusky Quarry, Parkertown, OH, (e) Columbus Formation dolomitic limestone from Marblehead Quarry, Marblehead, OH, (f) Berea formation sandstone from Johnson Quarry, Kipton, OH, and (g) Racine Formation dolomite from Thornton Quarry, Thornton, IL. Field geological observations had previously been performed at an eighth quarry (McCook Quarry, McCook, IL). The McCook Quarry produces Niagaran series dolomite. b. Laboratory durability testing. Laboratory durability testing of stone samples to accelerate weather exposure freeze/thaw and wet/dry effects, and to determine specific gravity and sample petrography, was performed. The laboratory durability testing samples came from the eight quarries where field geological observations had been performed, plus samples from a ninth quarry (Iron Mountain Quarry, Iron Mountain, MI). The Iron Mountain Quarry produces taconite. c. Quarry sample microstructural analyses. Microstructural analyses of quarry stone samples from seven different quarries to determine microscale features in the rock that affect stability, and their relations to compositional and textural variations, were conducted after laboratory durability testing. These were the same quarries for which quarry field geological observations had also been performed, except stone samples from McCook Quarry were not available for quarry microstructural analyses. d. Field prototype monitoring. Field monitoring of 10 specific sections of five structures to document progressive deterioration rates among different stone types, different degrees of environmental exposure, and different levels of stone quality control was conducted. The five structures were (a) Chicago Harbor, IL, breakwater, (b) Calumet Harbor, IL and IN, breakwater, (c) Calumet Harbor, IL, confined disposal facility (CDF) revetment, (d) Burns Harbor, IN, breakwater, and (e) Cleveland Harbor, OH, east breakwater. The 10 sections of structures selected for evaluation contained deteriorated stone from the eight quarries previously discussed, plus stone from the Calumet Harbor CDF revetment that originally came from a ninth quarry, the Iron Mountain Quarry, Iron Mountain, MI. The Iron Mountain Quarry produces taconite. Also, stone from a tenth quarry (Cedarville Quarry, Cedarville, MI) was evaluated by this field prototype monitoring study because stone from this quarry has previously been placed on other stone structures around the Great Lakes. The Cedarville Quarry produces Niagaran series dolomite. Ground inspections by registered professional geologists were made to catalogue, at the monitored sections, all stone fractures and offset measurements in armor stone above the high-water mark, between low water and high water on the harbor side, and between low water and high water on the lake side (annually for 3 years). Broken stones were marked to show in aerial photographs to insure repeatability, and to document progression of deterioration.
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