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|Title:||Passive reactive berm to provide low maintenance lead containment at active small arms firing ranges : field demonstration|
Larson, Steven L.
Martin, W. Andy
Griggs, Christopher S.
Nestler, Catherine C.
Passive reactive berm V
Lead containment Phosphate amendments
Active small arms firing rages Metal contaminant
Heavy-metal migration prevention immobilization
Berm material TRAPPS™
Thermally treated fish bone amendment
Environmental Security Technology Certification Program
|Publisher:||Environmental Laboratory (U.S.)|
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
|Series/Report no.:||ERDC/EL TR ; 12-20.|
Heavy metals are released into the environment as a result of critical military live-fire training. Preventing heavy-metal migration into and contamination of the local environment is crucial because remediating contaminated soils is resource intensive, difficult, and costly. Previous studies have demonstrated that phosphate amendments have been successfully used as a best management practice (BMP) to immobilize metal contaminants. The Passive Reactive Berm (PRBerm™) technology incorporates phosphate amendments with ballistic sand to immobilize soluble metals (e.g., lead) during the inevitable bullet corrosion process. Treatability studies determined that an amendment ratio of 5% (weight/weight) to sand was sufficient to contain > 90% of soluble lead within the berm material. The technology was field tested on the M-60 small arms firing range (SAFR) at Charleston Air Force Base (CAFB) in Charleston, South Carolina. The CAFB PRBerm™ was tested with a 5% TRAPPS™ amendment (a granular, apatite-based material), alone and in combination with a 5% thermally treated fish bone Apatite™. For the CAFB PRBerm™, storm water runoff and leachate water samples were collected directly from the SAFR and analyzed for metals, total suspended solids (TSS), and pH. Reduced metals migration in soil leachate and surface water runoff when compared to the traditional earthen berm was observed. The total suspended solids in the leachate and runoff waters from the amended berms increased over the control berm. Results indicated that the pH of the runoff waters from the amended berms remained acidic. The benefits of the PRBerm™ when compared to the traditional earthen berm, or a fully contained bullet trap, include reduced metals migration in soil leachate and surface water runoff, as well as reduced construction and operation costs. The PRBerm™ has the potential to provide a useful, lowcost tool for defense forces to maintain active firing ranges while managing the inevitable effects of small arms residue corrosion in a low-cost and effective manner.
|Appears in Collections:||Technical Report|