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|Title:||Laboratory demonstration of abiotic technologies for removal of RDX from a process waste stream|
|Authors:||Gent, David B.|
Johnson, Jared L.
Felt, Deborah R.
Larson, Steven L.
|Keywords:||Chemical agents (Munitions)--Residues|
|Publisher:||Environmental Laboratory (U.S.)|
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
|Series/Report no.:||ERDC/EL ; TR-10-8.|
|Abstract:||Abstract: The Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) will soon establish a total maximum daily load (TMDL) for the mass of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) that can be discharged into the Holston River. Holston Army Ammunition Plant (HSAAP), a manufacturer of military explosives in Kingsport, TN, will need additional wastewater treatment in order to comply with this revised regulation. The objective of this effort was to demonstrate two technologies, alkaline hydrolysis and direct electrochemical reduction, as potential pretreatment systems. Three laboratory scale pilot reactors were constructed and tested: a 115-L semi-batch alkaline hydrolysis system, a 106-L rotating electrode batch electrochemical treatment system, and a 300-mL/min packed electrode continuous flow electrochemical treatment system. All three laboratory scale pilot reactors were effective in removing RDX from HSAAP process wastewater. A 10,000 gallon per day (gpd) alkaline treatment system may be built for $439,200 with a corresponding estimated annual operating cost of $296,737. Based on the laboratory results, a 10,000-gpd rotating electrode system may be built for $687,520, with an annual operating cost of $184,599. A packed electrode continuous flow reactor may be built for $1,774,000, with an annual operating cost of $82,308. The present costs of the evaluated treatment systems are $2.81M, $2.16M, and $2.43M for an alkaline system, a rotating electrode system, and a packed electrode system, respectively. Given the potential of electrochemical treatment systems to operate at much lower costs, continued development and demonstration of electrochemical treatment systems is warranted.|
|Appears in Collections:||Technical Report|