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|Title:||Grenade range management using lime for metals immobilization and explosives transformation; treatability study|
|Authors:||Larson, Steven L.|
Davis, Jeffrey L.
Martin, W. Andy.
Felt, Deborah R.
Nestler, Catherine C.
Brandon, Dennis L.
Fabian, Gene L.
|Publisher:||Environmental Laboratory (U.S.)|
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
|Series/Report no.:||ERDC/EL; TR-07-5.|
|Abstract:||Abstract: The Department of Defense operates hundreds of hand grenade ranges (HGRs) for training purposes. Live fire training is a necessary function to maintain mission readiness for our Nation’s warfighters, but it creates a potential source zone for munitions constituents such as metals and explosives. Fragmentation grenades — typically containing composition B within a steel shell casing — constitute the majority of hand grenades used at fixed position ranges. Explosives have been detected in HGR soils at levels in the low parts per billion (μg/kg) up to percent levels. Two mechanisms with potential for offsite migration of metals and explosives from HGR soil are transport in surface water and subsurface transport in leachate or pore water. Simple, innovative, and cost-effective technologies are being developed that can break down munitions constituents quickly at the training sites and prevent residues from migrating to local surface water or groundwater supplies. The application of hydrated lime to HGRs provides both a mechanism for metals immobilization and explosives transformation. The results from this treatability study indicate that the application of lime can be incorporated into range sustainability operations and the management practices for active HGRs.|
|Appears in Collections:||Technical Report|