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Title: Expedient upgrading of existing structures for fallout protection
Authors: United States. Defense Civil Preparedness Agency.
Huff, William L.
Keywords: Civil defense
Expedient construction
Fallout shelters
Protective construction
Issue Date: Apr-1978
Publisher: Weapons Effects Laboratory (U.S.)
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
Series/Report no.: Technical report (U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station) ; N-78-1.
Description: Technical report
Abstract: This study was conducted in support of the Defense Civil Preparedness Agency's (DCPA) Crisis Relocation Planning (CRP) program in which existing structures will be upgraded to provide fallout shelters for a relocated population. A demonstration test was conducted in which a residential dwelling was upgraded by placing soil against the walls and on the roof of the structure. The shelter was large enough to house 80 people. Upgrading was accomplished partially by hand labor and machinery. The test occupants using tools and materials found in most homes could if necessary upgrade their shelter during the expected 2- or 3-day period of crisis relocation preceding a nuclear attack. Several roof systems were tested and others were analyzed based on previous test results for overloads that occur from upgrading. A system of added supports was developed that would allow steel open-web joist roofs to be upgraded. Flat wood roof systems were found to have sufficient overload capacity to be upgraded without added support. Upgrading in all cases consisted of adding 100 to 120 psf of mass to the roof. Some concrete roof systems such as the flat plate were found unacceptable unless the quantity of upgrading material was reduced. The two-way slab roof could be safely upgraded without modifications.
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