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Title: Frost investigations, fiscal year 1951 : cold room studies : second interim report of investigations, volume 1
Authors: United States. Army. Corps of Engineers. New England Division.
Keywords: Frozen ground
Frozen soils
Frozen ground mechanics
Frost action
Frost heave
Frost heaving
Frost penetration
Cold chambers
Cold rooms
Publisher: Arctic Construction and Frost Effects Laboratory (U.S.)
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
Series/Report no.: Technical report (Arctic Construction and Frost Effects Laboratory (U.S.)) ; no. 36.
Description: Technical Report
Summary: This report presents the results of cold room studies of frost action in soils which were performed between February 1950 and the end of Fiscal Year 1951 by the Frost Effects Laboratory, New England Division, Corps of Engineers, The investigations are being conducted for the Airfield Branch, Office of the Chief of Engineers, Department of-the Army, as part of a continuing program of frost investigations aimed toward establishing and improving engineering design and evaluation criteria for roads, highways and airfield pavements constructed on soils which are subject to seasonal freezing and thawing. The studies are being conducted chiefly to determine the effects of each of the individual factors which influence ice segregation in soils, including gradation, per cent finer than 0.02 mm., per cent and size of aggregate greater than 2.0 mm., degree of compaction, surcharge pressures, initial degree of saturation in a closed system, alternate cycles of freeze-thaw, admixtures, capillarity, condensation, proximity of water supply, rate of penetration of 32°F. temperature, mineral composition of fine soil fraction, and permeability. To investigate the effects of several of the factors listed, tests have been performed on a large number of natural soils of various types, obtained from several locations in the Northern United States and Alaska, and on specimens prepared by blending various fine and coarse soil fractions in proportions to give desired investigational gradations. The purpose of this report is to consolidate and summarize all test results obtained to date to permit review by the Board of Consultants and to aid in formulating the direction and scope of the future investigations. Available test data from the phases of the investigation which are substantially complete indicate (1) The intensity of ice segregation in soils is dependent not only on the per cent of grains finer than 0.02 mm.,but also on the grain size distribution and/or physico-chemical properties of these fines; (2) Fine soil fractions with a high percentage of fine clay sizes appear to be more potent than silt sizes in producing ice segregation in soils of near borderline frost susceptibility; (3) Soils in similar soil groups, when classified by the Department of the Army Uniform Soil Classification System, show approximately the same rates of heave for corresponding percentages finer than 0.02 mm.; (4) The percentage of material finer than 0.02 mm. for which a given rate of heave is obtained increases progressively with each group from Sandy Gravel and Gravelly Soils (GW) toward the fine-grained soils, Gravelly Sandy Clay and Clay (CL); (5) The intensity of ice segregation in soils is decreased appreciably by an increase in overburden pressure, all other factors, such as rate of frost penetration, being equal; (6) The intensity of ice segregation in a frost susceptible soil varies directly with the initial degree of saturation, where water is available only by withdrawal of a portion of that already existing in the voids of the soil underlying the surface of freezings and (7) The rate of heave of the surface is generally independent of rate of freezing within the range of 1/4 to 1 and 3/4 inches per day. However, the heave per unit depth of frozen material is in inverse proportion to the rate of penetration of the freezing temperature.
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