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Title: Wetlands and water quality : a regional review of recent research in the United States on the role of freshwater and saltwater wetlands as sources, sinks, and transformers of nitrogen, phosphorus, and various heavy metals
Authors: Nixon, Scott W., 1943-2012
Lee, Virginia.
Keywords: Literature review
Water quality
Environmental aspects
Publisher: U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station
Series/Report no.: Technical Report (Wetlands Research Program (U.S.)) ; no. Technical Report Y-86-2
Abstract: This report is the first in a series of four literature reviews on wetland functions and values. Each review covers one of the following four broad wetlands functions and values: (1.) water quality, (2.) fish and wildlife habitat, (3.) socioeconomics, and (4.) hydraulics. The four reports, along with other information, were used to develop a multiyear wetlands functions and values research study plan implemented by the US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station. This report examines the literature on water quality functions of wetlands. The coterminous United States and Alaska were divided into seven geographic regions representing groups of Corps of Engineers Districts. Within each geographic region, the quality and quantity of literature were examined by wetland type and function within wetland type. The specific water quality functions examined included wetlands as sources, sinks, and transformers of nutrients and heavy metals. A review of literature on mass balance studies of nutrients and heavy metals was also provided for each region. Recommendations are provided to address data gaps identified during the literature review. Study results indicated considerable diversity in the quantity and quality of wetlands water quality literature between and within each geographic region of the coterminous United States and Alaska. In general, wetlands water quality has been studied most intensely in the estuarine marshes of the Gulf and North Atlantic coasts. Water quality in freshwater wetlands has not received attention commensurate with the wide distribution of these wetland types. Most previous wetlands water quality research has been fragmented into site-specific or function-specific studies. Very few mass balance studies have been conducted. Two complementary approaches to addressing wetlands water quality research data gaps are recommended. The first approach is to develop mass balances or budgets of carbon, nutrients, heavy metals, and other possible pollutants. The mass balance studies should be determined at carefully selected field sites over several annual cycles. The second approach would focus on the design, construction, and use of experimental wetland microcosms. The microcosms would permit assessment of the fates and effects of various materials under highly controlled conditions.
Description: Technical report
Gov't Doc #: Technical Report Y-86-2
Rights: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
Size: 23 pages
Types of Materials: PDF
Appears in Collections:Technical Report

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