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|Title:||Herbicide concentration/exposure time requirements for controlling submersed aquatic plants : summary of research accomplishments|
|Authors:||Aquatic Plant Control Research Program (U.S.)|
Getsinger, Kurt D.
Netherland, Michael D.
Exotic species management
Herbicide contact time
|Publisher:||Environmental Laboratory (U.S.)|
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
Abstract: Efficacy of herbicides used to control submersed aquatic plants depends upon herbicide concentration in the water column and exposure time of herbicide concentrations surrounding target plants. Furthermore, the unique properties of aquatic herbicides require that concentration/exposure time (CET) relationships be developed for each product and target plant. Improved control of exotic species such as Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) and hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata), using lower levels of active ingredients, can be achieved through the characterization of herbicide CET-relationships. From 1986 through 1995, studies were conducted under controlled conditions to define CET relationships for the most widely used U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)-registered aquatic herbicides that are effective against Eurasian watermilfoil and hydrilla, including 2,4-D, fluridone, endothall, diquat, and copper. The USEPA Experimental Use Permit aquatic herbicides triclopyr and bensulfuron methyl were also evaluated. These research objectives were accomplished through a series of laboratory, growth chamber, greenhouse, mesocosm, and field verification studies. Coupling pertinent CET information with water exchange data. prescription treatment scenarios can be developed to achieve desired levels of target plant control, while using low doses of herbicides and minimizing damage to nontarget plants. Results from these CET evaluations have provided guidance for the cost-effective and environmentally compatible use of aquatic herbicides in a variety of field situations, including the development of innovative delivery techniques for flowing water conditions. This report summarizes major research findings and accomplishments of the CET work effort.
|Appears in Collections:||Miscellaneous Paper|