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|Title:||Wave induced oscillations in harbors of arbitrary shape|
|Authors:||W.M. Keck Laboratory of Hydraulics and Water Resources.|
|Publisher:||Hydraulics Laboratory (U.S.)|
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
|Series/Report no.:||Contract report (U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station) ; H-69-2.|
Abstract: Theoretical and experimental studies were conducted to investigate the wave induced oscillations in an arbitrary shaped harbor with constant depth which is connected to the open-sea. A theory termed the "arbitrary shaped harbor" theory is developed. The solution of the Helmholtz equation, ∇²f + k²f = 0, is formulated as an integral equation; an approximate method is employed to solve the integral equation by converting it to a matrix equation. The final solution is obtained by equating, at the harbor entrance, the wave amplitude and its normal derivative obtained from the solutions for the regions outside and inside the harbor. Two special theories called the circular harbor theory and the rectangular harbor theory are also developed. The coordinates inside a circular and a rectangular harbor are separable; therefore, the solution for the region inside these harbors is obtained by the method of separation of variables. For the solution in the open-sea region, the same method is used as that employed for the arbitrary shaped harbor theory. The final solution is also obtained by a matching procedure similar to that used for the arbitrary shaped harbor theory. These two special theories provide a useful analytical check on the arbitrary shaped harbor theory. Experiments were conducted to verify the theories in a wave basin 15 ft wide by 31 ft long with an effective system of wave energy dissipaters mounted along the boundary to simulate the open-sea condition. Four harbors were investigated theoretically and experimentally: circular harbors with a 10° opening and a 60° opening, a rectangular harbor, and a model of the East and West Basins of Long Beach Harbor located in Long Beach, California. Theoretical solutions for these four harbors using the arbitrary shaped harbor theory were obtained. In addition, the theoretical solutions for the circular harbors and the rectangular harbor using the two special theories were also obtained. In each case, the theories have proven to agree well with the experimental data. It is found that: (1.) the resonant frequencies for a specific harbor are predicted correctly by the theory, although the amplification factors at resonance are somewhat larger than those found experimentally, (2.) for the circular harbors, as the width of the harbor entrance increases, the amplification at resonance decreases, but the wave number bandwidth at resonance increases, (3.) each peak in the curve of entrance velocity vs incident wave period corresponds to a distinct mode of resonant oscillation inside the harbor, thus the velocity at the harbor entrance appears to be a good indicator for resonance in harbors of complicated shape, (4.) the results show that the present theory can be applied with confidence to prototype harbors with relatively uniform depth and reflective interior boundaries. NOTE: This file is large. Allow your browser several minute to download the file.
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