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Title: Formation of lake ice in a temperate climate
Authors: Ragle, Richard H.
Keywords: Ice
Lake ice
Ice formation
New Hampshire
Post Pond, New Hampshire
Publisher: Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (U.S.)
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
Series/Report no.: Research report (Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (U.S.)) ; 107.
Description: Research Report
Summary: The formation of lake ice was studied during the winter of 1956-57 at Post Pond, Lyme, N. H. Tabular, columnar, granular, and crenulate textures of 36 blocks of ice observed are discussed in terms of relative growth velocity and shown in a classification chart. Ice structures are characterized by Forel striations, Tyndall figures, bubbles and strain shadows. Average crystal areas increased with ice thickness, the rate of increase being greater toward lake center, and ceased to enlarge when in a continuous bubble layer. The lake-ice sheet grew both from top and bottom, .downward growth resulting from crystals in a favorable vertical orientation of a-axes and upward growth coming about by water flowing on the original upper ice surface and freezing. Exception to this type of growth was found in the lake area which froze first, where individual crystal areas were larger at the surface and there was no upper surface ice accretion. Fabric diagrams of ice outside the anomolous area show a change of optic axis orientation from a high percentage of c-axes vertical near the surface to a high percentage horizontal at the bottom.
Rights: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
Appears in Collections:Research Report

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