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Title: Migration and crystallization of interlamellar water during freezing and thawing of Wyoming bentonite
Authors: Anderson, Duwayne M. (Duwayne Marlo), 1927-
Hoekstra, P. (Pieter)
Keywords: Water
Ground water
Soil freezing
Soil moisture content
Ground ice
Ground ice formation
Ice crystals
Freeze-thaw cycles
Publisher: Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (U.S.)
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
Series/Report no.: Research report (Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (U.S.)) ; 192.
Description: Research Report
Abstract: Homo-ionic, clay-water pastes of Wyoming bentonite were studied at near freezing temperatures by X-ray diffraction. On freezing, the initial high d(001) spacings of the lithium-and sodium-bentonite pastes decreased, first to about 19A and, at about -10°C, to 16A. When the temperature was raised, the d(001) spacings of the frozen clays increased substantially; on melting, the d(001) spacings quickly expanded to their initial high values. The behavior of the hydrogen-aluminum-, potassium-, and calcium-bentonite was similar except that spacings greater than about 20A did not occur. Evidently, when bentonite-water pastes are frozen, all but 2 or 3 monomolecular layers of the interlamellar water migrate into the pore space to form ordinary ice. The remaining interlamellar water must therefore correspond to the "unfrozen" water of previous investigations. Only the diffraction peaks corresponding to the normal hexagonal ice structure were detected. The relative intensities of the diffraction peaks revealed evidence of epitaxy in that the ice crystals appeared to be preferentially oriented with their c-axes perpendicular to the c-axes of the clay crystals.
Rights: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
Appears in Collections:Research Report

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