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Title: Saturation, phase composition and freezing point depression in a rigid soil model
Authors: Lange, G. Robert.
McKim, H. L. (Harlan L.)
Keywords: Soils
Frozen soils
Frozen ground
Soil water
Soil water composition
Soill saturation
Soil models
Mathematical models
Mathematical analysis
Publisher: Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (U.S.)
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
Series/Report no.: Research report (Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (U.S.)) ; 182.
Description: Research Report
Abstract: Calorimetry was used to explore the effects of saturation and temperature upon the phase composition of the water at below freezing temperatures in a porcelain block with fine pore spaces. The effect of pore size upon phase composition was held constant by the rigid model. The percent of original Water frozen was determined for a wide range of saturations and several temperature levels. Nucleation was avoided. After 20 hr of freezing, 64 of 74 determinations showed less than 10% or more than 70% of the water frozen. Thus, a metastable condition of saturation and temperature for guaranteed freezing was defined for the pore space model with time of freezing held constant. Freezing points were also measured at various levels of saturation in the same porcelain blocks. A range of effective pore sizes was calculated from these data, thus characterizing the pore size distribution. Both freezing point depression and guaranteed freezing data, when plotted against saturation, appear to conform to an empirical relationship of the form: θ = β log𝖾 𝖲 + ε in which θ may be either the freezing point depression ∆θ or the temperature for guaranteed freezing, θ𝖿, and 𝖲 is the saturation coefficient. The slope constant β has the same value (1.35) for both θ𝖿 and ∆θ. ε, the temperature intercept at maximum saturation (𝖲 = 0.92), has different values (-0.4°C and -3.3°C) for ∆θ and θ𝖿 respectively. It is concluded that the phase composition of the water in frozen soils is dependent upon the degree of saturation as well as the temperature. It is suggested that rigid models are useful tools for investigating the freezing process in soils.
Rights: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
Appears in Collections:Research Report

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