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Title: Differential sea ice drift
Authors: National Science Foundation (U.S.)
United States. Advanced Research Projects Agency.
Hibler, William D.
Weeks, W. F.
Kovacs, Austin.
Ackley, Stephen F.
Keywords: Continuum motion
Ice physics
Pack ice
Cross spectral analysis
Inhomogeneity variation
Pack ice rotation
Divergence rates
Linear drift theory
Sea ice deformation
Ekman layer theory
Linear least squares theory
Sea ice drift
Ice mechanics
Memory effects
Spectral analysis
Strain measurements
Velocity fluctuations
Viscous sea ice models
Wind driven ice drift
Publisher: Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (U.S.)
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
Series/Report no.: Research report (Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (U.S.)) ; 329.
Description: Research Report
Abstract: Measurements of mesoscale sea ice deformation over a region approximately 20 km in diameter were made over a five-week period in the spring of 1972 at the main AIDJEX camp in the Beaufort Sea. They have been analyzed to determine nonlinearities in the ice velocity field (due to the discrete small-scale nature of the ice pack), as well as a continuum mode of deformation represented by a least squares strain rate tensor and vorticity. The deformation rate time series between Julian day 88 and 113 exhibited net areal changes as large as 3% and deformation rates up to 0.16% per hour. In the principal axis coordinate system, the strain rate typically exhibited a much larger compression (or extension) along one axis than along the other. Persistent cycles at ~12-hour wavelengths were observed in the divergence rate. A comparison of the average residual error with the average strain rate magnitude indicated that strains measured on a scale of 10 km or greater can serve as a valid measure of the continuum motion of the sea ice. This conclusion is also substantiated by a comparison between the mesoscale deformation, and macroscale deformation measured over a ~100-km-diameter region. Vorticity calculations indicate that at low temporal frequencies ( < 0.04 hr^-1 ) the whole mesoscale array rotates essentially as an entity and consequently the low frequency vorticity can accurately be estimated from the rotation of a single floe. (Part I) A comparison of mesoscale strain measurements with the atmospheric pressure field and the wind velocity field indicated that the ice divergence rate and vorticity followed the local pressure and wind divergence with significant correlation. For low atmospheric pressures and converging winds, the divergence rate was negative with the vorticity being counterclockwise. The inverse behavior was observed for high pressures and diverging winds. This behavior agreed with predictions based upon the infinite boundary solution of a linearized drift theory in the absence of gradient current effects and using the constitutive law proposed by Glen for pack ice. The best least squares values of the constitutive law parameters η and ς were found to be given by ~10^12 kg sec^-1. Using typical divergence rates, these values yielded compressive stresses of the magnitude of 10^5 N m^-1, which are similar to values suggested by the Parmerter and Coon ridge model. In general, the infinite boundary solution of the linear drift equation indicates that in a low pressure region that is reasonably localized in space, the ice would be expected to converge for high compactness (winter) and diverge for low compactness (summer). Calculations were also carried out using a more general linear viscoelastic constitutive law that includes memory effects and that includes a generalized Hooke's law as well as the Glen law as special cases. A best fit of this more general calculation with strain measurements indicates, overall, a better agreement with viscous behavior than with elastic behavior, with the frequency behavior of the estimated "viscosities" similar to the Glen law behavior at temporal frequencies less than ~0.01 hr^-1 (Part II)
Appears in Collections:CRREL Research Report

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