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Title: Movement of water in a film between glass and ice
Authors: Cornell University. Dept. of Agronomy.
Hoekstra, P. (Pieter)
Miller, R. D.
Keywords: Soils
Frost action
Ice permeability
Ice crystals
Publisher: Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (U.S.)
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
Series/Report no.: Research report (Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (U.S.)) ; 153.
Description: Research Report
Summary: The properties of the film between glass and ice were studied by (1) investigating the influence of particle size on the repulsion and trapping of glass particles by a growing ice surface, and (2) measuring the migration of glass particles embedded in ice. The transport of material in the thin film between the glass and ice is common to both types of experiments. The particles used were all glass spheres and cylinders and the equations for transport in this film are, therefore, written in spherical and cylindrical coordinates. It is assumed that the driving force for the movement of water molecules is proportional to the free-energy gradient. The experimental arrangement and apparatus are described. The process by which glass particles are carried upward by an advancing ice front is shown to be controlled by the transport of water in the film between the glass and the ice. A relationship, derived on the assumption that the transport is by diffusion, predicts the influence of the rate of advance of the ice on the size of the largest particle carried by the ice. The movement rate of particles embedded in ice resulting from a temperature gradient is mainly determined by the thickness of the unfrozen film between the glass and the ice. The thickness of the film decreases rapidly with temperature.
Rights: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
Appears in Collections:Research Report

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