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Title: Effect of mineralogical composition of fines on frost susceptibility of soils
Authors: Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Dept. of Civil Engineering.
Lambe, T. William.
Kaplar, Chester W.
Lambie, Thomas J.
Keywords: Clay minerals
Frost action
Frost heaving
Frost heave
Frozen soils
Frozen ground
Soil properties
Frozen fines
Clay soils
Soil mineralogy
Publisher: Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (U.S.)
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
Series/Report no.: Technical report (Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (U.S.)) ; 207.
Description: Technical Report
Abstract: A 3-year program of laboratory testing has led to some correlations between the mineralogical composition and the frost susceptibility of soils. Freezing tests performed on about 400 artificially blended specimens with various amounts and different kinds of mineral fines mixed with a clean sand, a silt, a lean clay and a heavy clay indicate that (of the minerals studied) mineral fines of relatively high frost-heave producing ability are, in increasing order: muscovite (a mica), calcite and magnesite (carbonates), iron montmorillonite, illite, kaolinite, nontronite (an iron montmorillonoid), and attapulgite. The tests also demonstrate the heave-inhibiting effects of sodium montmorillonite and peat fines. Freezing tests conducted on 17 selected natural soils, the fine fractions of which were dominated by various clay and non-clay minerals, approximately confirm in most particulars the results of the tests on artificial blends and, in addition, indicate the extremely high frost-susceptibility of fine-grained soils composed almost wholly of calcite or halloysite. The data also suggest 1) that for clays containing varying amounts and combinations of kaolinite, illite and montmorillonoid, frost heave varies approximately inversely as the liquid limit, and 2) that for silt-sand soils containing no carbonates but with varying amounts and combinations of illite, vermiculite, and chlorite, frost heave appears to be dependent upon the percentage by weight of fines present (i.e. material finer than the 0.02-mm size).
Appears in Collections:CRREL Technical Report

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