Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://hdl.handle.net/11681/5438
Title: Bacterial survival in snow made from wastewater
Authors: Parker, L. V. (Louise V.)
Yushak, Melinda L.
Martel, Courtland James
Reynolds, Charles M. (Charles Michael), 1950-
Keywords: Bacterial survival
Freeze-thaw
Snow
Snowfluent
Wastewater
Wastewater snow
Publisher: Cold Regions Research & Engineering Laboratory (U.S.)
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
Series/Report no.: ERDC/CRREL ; TR-00-9.
Abstract: This study examined the effects of a patented wastewater treatment process that makes snow from secondary wastewater, and the subsequent freeze-thaw cycling processes that occur in a snow column, on bacterial survival. Coliform bacteria were observed to be the most adversely affected by snowmaking, with more than a 3-log reduction in the total coliform counts and more than a 2-log reduction in the fecal coliform counts. Other species of bacteria were less affected by snowmaking, especially the gram-positive, fecal streptococci. Many species of bacteria also survived the multiple freeze-thaw cycles in the snow column and replicated during melting.
Description: Technical Report
Rights: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11681/5438
Appears in Collections:Technical Report

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