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dc.contributor.authorGrant, Steven A.-
dc.description.abstractThis report surveys some of the physical and chemical effects of cold temperatures that should be considered when developing a contaminant-transport model. This discussion begins with a working definition of cold regions for the purpose of contaminant hydrology modeling: an area with appreciable frozen ground and with a substantial fraction of the annual precipitation falling as snow. The chemical thermodynamics of geochemical solutions below 0°C is then reviewed. Particular attention is placed on the physical–chemical properties of ice and liquid water at subzero temperatures. Finally, models that estimate the liquid water content and hydraulic conductivity of frozen ground are discussed.-
dc.description.sponsorshipStrategic Environmental Research and Development Program (U.S.)-
dc.publisherCold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (U.S.)-
dc.publisherEngineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)-
dc.relation.ispartofseriesERDC/CRREL ; TR-00-21.-
dc.subjectFrozen ground-
dc.titlePhysical and chemical factors affecting contaminant hydrology in cold environments-
Appears in Collections:Technical Report

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