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|Title:||Underground UXO : are they a significant source of explosives in soil compared to low- and high-order detonations?|
Lever, J. H.
Walsh, Michael R.
Walsh, Marianne E.
|Publisher:||Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (U.S.)|
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
|Series/Report no.:||ERDC/CRREL ; TR-04-23.|
|Abstract:||Are the amounts of explosives leaking from UXO significant compared to other sources? To answer this question, data were compiled on the contamination released by above ground detonations of different order and by the rupture or corrosion of UXO. The results indicate that low-order detonations, be they from malfunctioning munitions or sympathetic detonations, are currently the largest contributors to range contamination. Also, dissolution of the explosive charge from heavily corroded UXO is significant and will increase in importance with time. Unfortunately, only order-of-magnitude estimates are possible due to shortage of data on the actual fates experienced by different types of munitions. However, the framework used here for compiling and ranking the explosive sources can help guide policy-making and future research activity to reduce range contamination.|
|Appears in Collections:||Technical Report|