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|Title:||Energetic residues on Alaska training ranges : studies for US Army garrison Alaska 2005 and 2006|
|Authors:||Walsh, Marianne E.|
Collins, Charles M.
Ramsey, Charles A.
Douglas, Thomas A.
Bailey, Ronald N.
Walsh, Michael R.
Hewitt, Alan D. (Alan Dole)
Clausen, Jay L.
Bombing and gunnery ranges--Alaska
|Publisher:||Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (U.S.)|
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
|Series/Report no.:||ERDC/CRREL ; TR-07-9.|
|Abstract:||Soil was collected from Alaskan firing points and impact areas to assess accumulation of 2,4-DNT, NG, RDX, TNT, and/or HMX resulting from live-fire training activities. At each sampling site, the energetic compound was known from previous sampling or from specific training events. Surface soils at firing points for 105-mm howitzers had part-per-million concentrations of 2,4-DNT resulting from deposition of slivers of propellant from multi-perforated single-base propellant grains. 2,4-DNT was not detectable at a 155-mm howitzer firing point where the propellant formulation was the same, but the propellant grain was single-perforated. Nitroglycerin was detected from tens to hundreds of parts per million at mortar firing points, some of which may have been due to burning of excess propellant. Consistent soil sampling depth to monitor propellant residues is important because 2,4-DNT and NG concentrations decrease sharply with depth. At vegetated firing points, propellant was detectable in mosses and dry, matted grasses, but not in recently emergent leafy vegetation. To estimate the concentration of high-explosives residues, more mass and increments are needed to overcome the greater spatial and compositional heterogeneity. Particulate HE can persist for many years at upland impact areas, but degradation processes are apparent in a salt marsh impact area.|
|Gov't Doc #:||ERDC/CRREL TR-07-9|
|Appears in Collections:||Technical Report|