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|Title:||Invasive marine and estuarine animals of California|
|Authors:||Aquatic Nuisance Species Research Program (U.S.)|
Ray, Gary L.
|Keywords:||Marine and estuarine animals|
|Publisher:||Environmental Laboratory (U.S.)|
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
Purpose: New species of estuarine and marine animals are inadvertently or intentionally introduced into the waters of the United States every year (Figure 1). Variously referred to as introduced, nonindigenous (NIS), alien, non-native, or exotic species, most pose little or no threat; however, a few have the potential to disrupt local ecosystems, fisheries, and human infrastructure. Such invasions directly impact the mission of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) through its responsibilities for construction and maintenance of harbors, ports, and waterways; erosion control; management of water resources; and wetland and coastal habitat restoration. The general biology and ecology of invasive estuarine and marine animals have been described in previous reports (Carlton 2001, Ray 2005). This technical note is part of a series describing known invasive estuarine and marine animals in the major geographic regions of the United States. Unlike previous works in this series, this report focuses on a single state, California. This is due to the fact that California has the largest number of known introduced estuarine and marine animals. San Francisco Bay alone has approximately 212 NIS (Cohen and Carlton 1995) and been described as the most invaded estuary in North America (Cohen and Carlton 1998). Introduced species now dominate all major benthic communities within the bay (Carlton et al. 1990, Nichols et al. 1990, Lee et al. 2003). This report identifies species posing a specific threat to USACE activities.
|Appears in Collections:||Technical Note|