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|Title:||Review of formulations for processes affecting the subsurface transport of explosives|
|Authors:||Installation Restoration Research Program (U.S.)|
McGrath, Christian J.
|Publisher:||Environmental Laboratory (U.S.)|
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
Abstract: The subsurface fate and transport of explosives and explosives associated compounds (XACs) may be affected by the following processes: advection (saturated and unsaturated), dispersion, diffusion, sorption, dissolution and aqueous complexation, biotransformation, abiotic reduction and bind reactions, and volatilization. Conceptual and mathematical models are reviewed for each of these processes. Particular attention is given to sorption and the influence of subsurface heterogeneities, microbially mediated processes, and the likely abiotic reactions that strongly influence the transport of nitroaromatics. Process descriptors are reviewed as to possible utility in the numerical modeling of XAC fate, transpom and remediation. Gaps in process conceptualmodels are identified and recommendations for fhture research presented. The most immediate process research should be fased on identifying the reactants, stoichiometry, and kinetics of the ill-defined abiotic reactions (reduction, covalent binding to soil organics, and polymerization). A numerical model should be prepared in conjunction with the process research to integrate descriptor for the multiple processes affecting explosives into a single code. This code should address the competing biotic and abiotic reduction reactions, the impact of heterogeneities on dispersion and nonequilibrium sorption, biotransformation of non-growth substrates as well as a primary substrate and multiple electron acceptors.
|Appears in Collections:||Technical Report|