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|Title:||Summary and evaluation for white phosporus remediation : a literature review|
|Authors:||Installation Restoration Research Program (U.S.)|
Rivera, Yilda B.
Estes, Trudy J.
Bricka, R. Mark.
|Publisher:||Environmental Laboratory (U.S.)|
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
Abstract: This documentis a culmination of research from many different sources on the environmental effects and available treatment technologies of white phosphorus (WP). Health risks associated with WP exposure, environmental fate, and transformation products are also summmized. WP is highly toxic and poisonous and spontaneously ignites in the presence of air. It is used in smoke-producing munitions by the U.S. military to create battlefield conditions. When WP munitions are deployed, they breakup in little particles which disperse over a large area. When these particles come in contact with water, they cease burning. Then they settle and remain stored in the sediments. These particles are now available for aquatic organisms and waterfowl that feed from bottom sediments, and poisoning may result. This report focuses on WP soil and sediment contamination due to its persistence in these environments. Most of the information sources found focused on WP water contamination and waterfowl poisoning. Limited information is available about remediation of WP in contaminated areas. However, technologies for removal of WP from soil and sediments are currently being studied. Some recommended technologies are only in the conceptual stage. Evaluation of these treatment technologies shows that the remediation alternatives must address the removal or destruction of WP particles. Oxidation and air-drying alternatives can be effective in removing WP particles from the soil and sediment.
|Rights:||Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.|
|Appears in Collections:||Technical Report|