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Title: Habitat development field investigations, Windmill Point marsh development site, James River, Virginia : appendix E : environmental impacts of marsh development with dredged material : metals and chlorinated hydrocarbon compounds in marsh soils and vascular plant tissues
Authors: Lunz, John D.
Keywords: Marshes--James River (Va.)
Wetlands--James River (Va.)
James River (Va.)
Wildlife habitat improvement
Dredging spoil
Dredged material
Plants--Effect of metals on
Dredged Material Research Program (U.S.)
Publisher: U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station
Series/Report no.: Technical Report (Dredged Material Research Program (U.S.)) ; no. Technical Report D-77-23; Appendix E
Abstract: Soil and vascular plant tissue samples were collected in October 1976 from three freshwater marshes located on the James River in Virginia. One marsh known as the Windmill Point marsh development site had been constructed using dredged material during the 1974-75 maintenance dredging of the James River navigation channel. The two other marshes were natural marshes. The marshes studied were similar in their substrate characteristics. All were fine-textured silt and clay with volatile solids values between 10 and 20 percent, and contained about 50 percent water. Elevation and plant community characteristics were similar. Soil samples were collected from the same three elevation zones in each marsh. Arrow arum (Peltandra virginica) seeds, barnyard grass (Echinochloa sp.) seeds, stems and leaves, and roots, and cattail (Typha sp.) stems and leaves and tubers were also collected from each marsh. Soil and plant tissue samples were analyzed for the metals nickel, zinc, chromium, lead, and cadmium and the chlorinated hydrocarbon compounds DDT, DDD, DDE, lindane, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, chlordane, endrine, dieldrin, Kelthane, Kepone, PCBs, and toxaphene. Plant stem and leaf tissue samples were treated before analysis to remove sorbed metal and chlorinated hydrocarbon materials. Marsh soil concentrations of chromium, cadmium, and lead were higher in the dredged material marsh; nickel and zinc concentrations were higher in the natural marsh. Low detectable levels of DDD, chlordane isomers, and Arochlor 1260 (PCB) occurred most frequently in dredged material marsh soils. Nickel was the only metal studied which could be identified in an experimental marsh plant tissue at higher levels than existed in a similar plant tissue from a natural marsh. DDE and Kelthane were detected most frequently in plant samples collected from the experimental marsh. Kepone was detected in all marsh soils studied. Concentrations were highest (about 500 ppb, dry weight) at the experimental marsh. However, there were no differences in plant tissue Kepone concentrations between the experimental and natural marshes. There was no apparent relationship between total sediment chemical composition and plant available metal and chlorinated hydrocarbon compounds. Soil characteristics occurrent in marshes, including near neutral pH, high organic content, and reduced oxidation reduction conditions, appeared to restrict chemical mobility and bioavailability and favored chlorinated hydrocarbon degradation. Potential soil chemical to plant transfer routes including surface sorption and adsorption and translocation i were evidenced and discussed.
Description: Technical Report
Gov't Doc #: Technical Report D-77-23; Appendix E
Rights: Approved for Public Release; Distribution is Unlimited
Appears in Collections:Technical Report

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