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|Title:||Explosives conjugation products in remediation matrices. Interim report 2|
Geological Survey (U. S.)
Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (U.S.)
Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (U.S.)
Pennington, Judith C.
McFarland, Victor A.
Inouye, Laura Shizuka.
Fredrickson, Herbert L.
Lutz, Charles H.
Jarvis, A. Susan.
Clarke, Joan U.
Thorn, Kevin A.
Thorne, Philip G.
Ringelberg, David B.
Felt, Deborah R.
Hayes, Charolett A.
Porter, Beth E.
|Publisher:||Environmental Laboratory (U.S.)|
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
Abstract: Immobilization of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in soils and in compost had been widely documented. Dramatic reductions in solvent extractable TNT have been observed, while complete recoveries of radioactivity from carbon-14 labeled TNT indicated that all of the products of TNT remained in the matrix in some form. The objectives of these studies were to determine the nature and mechanism of immobilization and the long-term stability, biodegradability, and toxicity of the final products. The approach included ¹⁵N-nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of binding to humic materials, acid/base hydrolysis with subsequent identification of products, microbial degradation, and toxicity studies. Results confirm covalent bonding of the amino transformation products of TNT that is only slightly reversible, depending upon the degree of completion to which the reactions have occurred. Products were resistant to microbial degradation and relatively stable against hydrolysis. Toxicity was related to bioavailability, which depended upon the degree of completion of the immobilization reactions. These results have important implication for fate of TNT in remediation systems and in the environment.
|Appears in Collections:||Technical Report|