Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
|Title:||Evaluation of peroxone oxidation techniques for removal of explosives from Cornhusker Army Ammunition Plant waters|
|Authors:||U.S. Army Environmental Center.|
Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (U.S.)
Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (U.S.)
Fleming, Elizabeth C.
Zappi, Mark E.
Miller, Jerry L.
Cornhusker Army Ammunition Plant
|Publisher:||Environmental Laboratory (U.S.)|
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
Abstract: Peroxone technology is based on the combination of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and ozone (O3) for the generation of the hydroxyl radical (OH*), which is a powerful reactive species in water, to further oxidize the organic contaminants. The main objective of this study was to determine the technical feasibility of using peroxone systems for treatment of contaminated groundwaters at the Cornhusker Army Ammunition Plant (CAAP). The U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) selected CAAP for the evaluation of peroxone oxidation technology since this site is included on the National Priorities List and due to the relatively high concentration of explosives, namely octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5-tetrazine (HMX), hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), trinitrobenzene (TNB), trinitrotoluene (TNT), 4-amino-dinitrotoluene (4A-DNT), 2-amino-dinitrotoluene (2A-DNT), and 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT) present. The peroxone oxidation pilot system used in this study was constructed and assembled by the WES Environmental Restoration Branch and the WES Public Works Division. The unit consisted of four glass columns (6-ft in diameter and 14-ft in height) plumbed in series, a holding tank (500 gal) for influent water supply, two 3-lb per day ozone generators, a microcomputer for data logging, oxidizer injection systems, and monitors for vapor and aqueous phase concentrations of hydrogen peroxide and ozone. The feasibility of using peroxone treatment for remediation of explosives-contaminated water was evaluated using water from three different wells: Wells 22, 66, and a ''New Well" that was constructed during the peroxone evaluations. Several oxidizer mass ratios (H2O2/O3), modes of hydrogen peroxide injection (batch or continuous), and hydraulic residence times were studied. A concentration of 2-percent ozone by weight in the sparged air stream, hydrogen peroxide concentrations of 10 to 25 ppm (continuously injected) in the influent to each column, and hydraulic residence times of 80 and 120 min were the operating conditions that achieved the highest removal for the majority of the explosives compounds in the water. The results demonstrated that the peroxone treatment is a viable alternative to reduce low-level explosives concentrations to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking water standards. Water systems with higher concentrations of explosives such as Well 66 and New Well attained a high degree of remediation, for example, up to 96- and 98-percent TNT degradation in Well 66 and the New Well, respectively. Peroxone, a dark oxidation process, appears to be an economically competitive alternative to ultraviolet-illuminated oxidation systems.
|Appears in Collections:||Technical Report|