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|Sampling design for reservoir water quality investigations
|Environmental and Water Quality Operational Studies (U.S.)
Gaugush, Robert F.
|Environmental Laboratory (U.S.)
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
Abstract: This report introduces the statistical concepts involved in the development of sampling designs for reservoir water quality investigations. It provides a general overview of statistical inference and the assumptions involved in sampling. A discussion of basic statistics is included to familiarize the reader with the necessary statistical background for the material to follow. The presentation of the methods of sampling design is made with specific reference to reservoir water quality sampling and covers the determination of sample size, simple random sampling, stratified random sampling, and systematic sampling. The report also presents the use of decision matrices, tools to aid in the decision-making process involved in determining the number of samples, the parameters to be measured, and the frequency of sampling within funding constraints. Reservoir water quality patterns and their implications for sampling design are discussed with an emphasis on the influence of parameter frequency distributions, spatial patterns, and temporal patterns on sampling design. From the consideration of reservoir water quality patterns, a generalized reservoir sampling design is developed. Methods for the evaluation of an implemented sampling design are also considered. The techniques of variance component analysis, cluster analysis, and error analysis can be used to determine the effectiveness of a given sampling design.
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