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Title: Arcadia Lake water-quality evaluation
Authors: Hall, Ross W.
Plumb, Russell H.
Thornton, Kent W.
Eley, Rex Lyman, 1942-
Lessem, Allan S.
Robey, Donald L.
Loftis, Bruce.
Saunders, Peter E. (Peter Edson), 1946-
Keywords: Arcadia Lake (Okla.)
Water quality
Mathematical models
Numerical models
Publisher: U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station
Series/Report no.: Technical Report (Environmental Effects Laboratory (U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station)) ; no. Y-77-2
Abstract: The water quality of the proposed Arcadia Lake, Oklahoma, was evaluated relative to water-quality criteria and standards appropriate for the project purposes. Study procedures included evaluation of existing data and previous studies of streams and lakes in the project area; collection and evaluation of additional field data; determination of available and limiting nutrients through algal bioassays; establishment of relationships between stream discharge; and loadings of nutrients, metals, and pesticides based on stream concentrations and land-use patterns; application of various mathematical models; and comparison of predicted or measured results with existing or proposed water-quality criteria. A comparison of average values for 70 water-quality parameters with the most stringent standard or criterion revealed that ammonia, manganese, mercury, DDT, dieldrin, aldrin, chlordane, lindane, heptachlor, PCB, phenols, and fecal coliforms equaled or exceeded permissible or recommended levels at least part of the time. Only coliform bacteria, ammonia, and manganese exceeded present Oklahoma standards applicable to proposed reservoir uses. Ammonia would not be expected to reach toxic concentrations in the hypolimnion of Arcadia Lake or interfere with project purposes. Nutrient evaluations based on concentrations and loading indicated that the proposed impoundment would be eutrophic and that algal blooms were likely to occur during the late spring and summer months. Algal bioassays and ecological model simulations indicated that not all of the available nutrients would be used because of light limitation. Algal blooms are expected to minimally interfere with recreational purposes of the lake because surrounding nutrient-rich Oklahoma reservoirs presently receive heavy recreational use and alternative, less eutrophic recreational reservoirs do not exist in the project area. It would not be feasible through watershed management practices or reservoir oprational strategies to reduce in-lake nutrient concentrations sufficiently to limit algal growth. Routine chemical treatments are not feasible nor compatible with all project purposes. A capability for selective withdrawal of municipal and industrial water supply releases would be of benefit in minimizing treatment costs. Manganese concentrations and occasionally iron concentrations are expected to exceed drinking water standards in the hypolimnion and headwaters of the proposed impoundment. Iron and manganese would be less likely to exceed standards in the epilimnion near the dam. Excessive iron and manganese would not be a problem in finished water supplies if the potential problem is recognized in the design of the water treatment plant. Average mercury concentration computed over all samples collected near Arcadia was ten times less than the public water supply criterion but exceeded the criterion for the protection of freshwater aquatic life. Results of analyses of the mercury content of fish collected in the Deep Fork River indicated body-burden concentrations less than Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) limits. Pesticides would not be expected to be a water-quality problem in Arcadia Lake because sorption and precipitation would reduce concentrations significantly and restricted use of some of the pesticides has been implemented or is proposed by the EPA. Heptachlor epoxide concentrations in fish exceeded FDA administrative guidelines. However, the rare occurrence of heptachlor, the failure to detect heptachlor epoxide in Deep Fork River water samples, the failure to detect heptachlor or heptachlor epoxide in river sediments, and the fact that the EPA has banned the distribution and use of the pesticide suggest that heptachlor and its degradation products will not exceed criteria in the proposed impoundment. Detectable phenol concentrations would be expected to occur only in the headwaters because of rapid decay and dilution. Coliform bacterial contamination would be limited to the headwaters of the proposed impoundment during base flow. Coliform bacteria might occasionally exceed standards in the lower portions of the pool, following major storm events in the watershed. But even then dilution probably would prevent concentrations from exceeding standards. The impoundment would be expected to exhibit weak thermal stratification during the late spring and summer months. Wind-mixing would determine the degree of stratification. Downstream temperature objectives could be met by project releases if selective withdrawal were practiced. It is expected that dissolved oxygen of project releases will be approximately 80 to 90 percent saturation due to reaeration as flows pass through the outlet works and stilling basin. If Arcadia Lake is constructed, water-quality data collection should continue through pre- and post impoundment in order to provide a basis for lake management to meet intended project purposes.
Description: Technical Report
Gov't Doc #: Technical Report Y-77-2
Rights: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited
Size: 315 pages/98.2 MBs
Types of Materials: PDF/A
Appears in Collections:Technical Report

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