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Title: Water-quality evaluation of a lower pool elevation for proposed Arcadia Lake, Oklahoma
Authors: United States. Army. Corps of Engineers. Tulsa District.
Thornton, Kent W.
Ford, Dennis E.
Hall, Ross W. (Ross Woodrow), 1945-
Eley, Rex Lyman, 1942-
Robey, Donald L.
Keywords: Arcadia Lake
Computerized simulation
Water quality
Mathematical models
Numerical models
Publisher: Environmental Effects Laboratory (U.S.)
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
Series/Report no.: Technical report (U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station) ; Y-77-3.
Description: Technical Report
Abstract: This study evaluated the water quality of the proposed Arcadia Lake at the lower pool elevation, 305 m msl, and supplemented the principal report, "Arcadia Lake Water-Quality Evaluation", conducted at pool elevation 311 m msl. The water quality of the proposed Arcadia Lake at the lower pool elevation was investigated using a version of the reservoir portion of the Water Quality for River-Reservoir Systems (WQRRS) ecological model. Although other water quality constituents were simulated, the study concentrated on temperature, dissolved oxygen, algae, and coliform bacteria concentrations. Chemical and biological model coefficients and meteorological, streamflow, physical, chemical, and biological model updates for study years 1970 and 1973 were identical to those used in the principal study. The reservoir was predicted to thermally stratify intermittently during the spring and summer months, but in general was isothermal at the lower pool elevation. Wind mixing was a dominant factor affecting the thermal structure of the impoundment. The isothermal conditions in the reservoir resulted in release temperatures similar to reservoir temperatures. In general, the release temperatures were lower than target temperatures during the winter and early spring, and higher than target temperatures during the summer and early fall. The release temperatures were within 7°C of the target temperatures, however. The usually well-mixed pool resulted in dissolved oxygen concentrations generally greater than 5 mg/l. Anoxic conditions did develop in the hypolimnion during brief periods of intermittent stratification, however. The average duration of the stratification periods was approximately 6 days. The aerobic environment should reduce the potential iron and manganese problems predicted in the principal study; but manganese is expected to violate drinking water standards the majority of the time while iron may occasionally exceed standards near the headwater area of the impoundment. The standards for iron and manganese are based on aesthetic rather than toxicological considerations. Depending upon hydrometeorological conditions, two or three major algae blooms were predicted during the study years. Most blooms are expected to consist primarily of nannophytoplankton with some blooms composed of nearly equal concentrations of net phytoplankton and nannophytoplankton. It is expected these blooms will be similar in magnitude and composition to those occurring in Lakes Keystone, Thunderbird, and Carl Blackwell and may cause taste and odor problems in the water supply if not considered in water supply treatment design. EPA criteria and State of Oklahoma primary body contact standards for fecal coliform bacteria were not violated near the dam at any time during the simulations. Coliforms are expected to exceed standards in the headwater area of the impoundment and, at times, may be high in the upper third of the impoundment. During major storm events (2-5 day hydraulic residence time), standards may be violated throughout the pool. Considering available data, environmental chemistry, and analytical precision, pesticides and heavy metals are not anticipated to vitiate project purposes. Additional data collection for mercury and heptachlor epoxide is recommended. Project purposes of flood control, municipal and industrial water supply, and general recreation are expected to be met by the predicted water quality for the proposed Arcadia Lake.
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