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|Title:||Small floodplain pools as habitat for fishes and amphibians : methods for evaluation|
|Authors:||Hoover, Jan Jeffrey, 1954-|
Killgore, K. Jack.
|Publisher:||Environmental Laboratory (U.S.)|
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
|Abstract:||Purpose: Small floodplain pools (less than 2 m deep, less than 500 m²) are inhabited by some of the least common fishes in large river systems: species adapted morphologically and physiologically to shallow, periodically hypoxic water with wide variation in temperature (Baker, Killgore, and Kasul 1991; Hoover and Killgore 1998). They are also inhabited by larval salamanders and frogs unable to exploit large, permanent lakes and streams: species adapted reproductively and developmentally to seasonal pulses of riparian-derived food organisms and water volume (Petranka 1998, McDiarmid and Altig 1999). Many of these species are locally or globally imperiled (LaClaire 1997, Warren et al. 2000). Other species provide recreational and commercial fisheries (Buffler and Dickson 1990, Lund 1995) and efficiently produced, high-quality prey for aquatic, semi-aquatic, and terrestrial predators (e.g., Burton and Likens 1975, Hoover and Killgore 1998). Traditional habitat assessments of aquatic ecosystems by the Corps, however, have not focused on these inconspicuous, sometimes transient habitats. Although the species known to inhabit pools are well documented, relationships between those populations and specific features of pool habitats are not. This hampers the evaluation of impacts and benefits necessary for civil works projects. Widespread declines in wetland fishes (Hoover and Killgore 1998) and amphibians (Dodd 1997) are focusing greater emphasis on pools as essential habitat. As a result, procedures have been developed for formal documentation and protection of pools (e.g., Colburn 1997). Also, pools are being created for habitat mitigation (Fairchild, Faulds, and Matta 2000) and enhancement (LaClaire 1997). For the Corps to effectively evaluate or create such habitats, models are required that relate habitat- or landscape-level features to fish and amphibian communities. Such models can be developed from a variety of sources depending on the resources and project requirements of Corps planners. These sources include previously published faunal surveys, historical population and hydrographic data, onsite field studies of fauna-habitat relationships, and laboratory studies of environmental tolerances. Data from such sources can be used to assess habitat suitability of pool size and setting, time of flooding, pool morphometry, and hydraulic characteristics of outflow. Such models are being developed in this work unit, and four examples from ongoing studies are presented below.|
|Appears in Collections:||Technical Note - Ecosystem Management and Restoration Research Program|