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|Factors affecting the durability of concrete in coastal structures
|U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station
United States. Army. Office of the Chief of Engineers
|United States, Beach Erosion Board
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
|Technical memorandum (United States. Beach Erosion Board) ; no. 96.
From the Introduction: Portland cement concrete is used as the material for such shore structures as breakwaters, jetties, groins , seawalls and bulkheads (5). The durability of concrete in coastal waters is influenced by the internal conditions or quality of the concrete and external conditions of exposure in the elements, including waters and waves of the sea or lake in which the structure is located. It has become apparent that all these factors must be considered in completely evaluating the suitability of concrete utilized in coastal structures. This study presents test data and service records of concrete used in various coastal structures, correlated with available information relative to factors that may have affected the service records. Concrete shore structures will not provide the service they should, even though the concrete in them is highly durable, unless the structures are designed adequately to withstand the forces to which they will be subjected and unless they are provided with stable foundations. Discussion of these factors is however outside the scope of this report. There are two fundamental reasons why the durability of the concrete in shore structures should be considered in connection with shore protection planning and design: (a) unless the durability of the concrete to be used in a proposed structure can be realistically predicted, it is not possible adequately to evaluate the relative economy of designing and building a given structure or project in concrete or other materials, when a choice of materials is available; (b) unless the requirements for concrete durability are known, it is not possible adequately to plan, design, and specify concrete shore protection works that may be expected, with reasonable assurance, to provide the required service. It might be thougkthat the requirements for concrete durability are already well and generally known and need not be restated in connection with a discussion of shore protection engineering. Although there is some basis for this thought, practical experience suggests that these requirements are all too frequently ignored by designers and constructors generally and, as will be brought out in this report, there are circumstances concerning shore protection work and exposure that impose significant changes in the emphasis that should be given to various factors affecting concrete durability.
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